Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, leading to a violation of its function, especially secretory. If a person has gastritis, the incoming food is poorly processed, which leads to a violation of the absorption of nutrients for the human body.
Chronic gastritis affects about 60-85% of the world's population, especially at a young age from 18 to 35 years. In connection with the modern pace of urbanization, gastritis began to occur more often in children from 8 to 13 years old.
Gastritis is also divided into the secretion of hydrochloric acid:
- Gastritis with low stomach acid
- Gastritis with normal stomach acid
- Gastritis with high stomach acid
Due to the presence of a certain type of gastritis in a person, different groups of drugs will be prescribed.
Causes of gastritis of the stomach
According to the cause of the occurrence, they are divided into acute and chronic gastritis.
Acute gastritis is an acute inflammation of the gastric mucosa when exposed to an irritant, i.e. chemically active substances (acids, alkalis) entering the stomach, taking medications (NSAIDs), poisoning with poor-quality food, and/or contaminated with infected microorganisms.
The appearance and development of chronic gastritis are influenced by many factors. The main ones are exogenous.
Exogenous factors are:
- The presence in the stomach of bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, which are the main etiological factor in the occurrence of chronic gastritis. The influence of other bacteria has not been proven
- Violation of the diet
- Abuse of alcohol and tobacco
- Long-term use of drugs that affect the gastric mucosa, the main ones are: NSAIDs and glucocorticosteroids (prednisone)
- Emotional stress, stress
Along with exogenous factors, there are also internal factors (endogenous) that contribute to the occurrence of chronic gastritis:
- genetic predisposition
- Duodenogastric reflux
- Endogenous intoxications
- chronic infectious diseases
- Metabolic disorders
- In other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, chronic pancreatitis, and chronic cholecystitis, which reflexively affect the gastric mucosa
Symptoms of gastritis
- Aching or cramping pains of low intensity in the epigastric region, often occur on an empty stomach or immediately after eating
- Constant heartburn, especially at night and in the morning, belching of sour
- Nausea, rarely vomiting of stomach contents
- Belching air, sour or bitter taste
- Heaviness in the epigastric region after eating, a feeling of rapid filling of the stomach
- Unpleasant taste in the mouth, bitterness
- Decreased appetite
Diagnosis of gastritis
- General clinical analysis of blood, urine
- Fecal analysis for the program
- Biochemical blood tests (liver tests, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase)
- X-ray of the chest in 2 projections
- X-ray of the esophagus, and stomach with a barium mixture
- Ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system
- Daily monitoring of pH in the lower part of the esophagus and stomach
- Non-invasive tests for the detection of Helicobacter pylori (respiratory)
Treatment of gastritis
The main treatment for chronic gastritis consists of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition.
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and proper balanced nutrition is:
- Refusal to drink alcoholic, highly carbonated drinks
- Weight loss in obesity
- Smoking cessation
- Exclusion of eating in large quantities and the late hours
If such methods of non-drug treatment do not bring relief, medications are used.
It is recommended to start treatment at the first signs of inflammation in the stomach.
The following medications will be used:
- Prokinetics (help accelerate the movement of the food bolus from the esophagus into the stomach, then into the duodenum, increase the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter) - Domperidone (Motilac, Motilium), Itopride (Ganaton)
- Antisecretory drugs (help suppress the secretion of hydrochloric acid) - proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole, rabeprazole)
- Antacids (Phospholugel, Almagel, Gaviscon)
- Belching with air, sour or bitter taste
In case of detected contamination of the gastric mucosa with H. pylori, a treatment regimen with antibacterial drugs is applied.
The treatment regimen is selected individually according to the patient's condition and concomitant diseases.
There are several standard treatment regimens:
- Antibiotics (penicillin series: amoxicillin, macrolides - clarithromycin).
- Proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole)
- Bismuth drug (novobismol, de-nol)
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