Allergic rhinitis is an allergic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa caused by house dust mites, plant pollen, pet dander, fungal allergens. Rhinitis can have both year-round and seasonal course. A long-term runny nose brings a lot of inconvenience, and is also a risk factor for diseases of the lower respiratory tract (bronchial asthma, pneumonia), therefore, if allergic rhinitis is suspected, it is necessary to contact an allergist to identify causally significant allergens.
The causes of allergic rhinitis are not fully understood, but it is known that this disease has a multifactorial nature: its development requires a genetic predisposition or prolonged exposure to external factors. The triggers for the appearance of rhinitis are:
- Frequently recurring respiratory infections
- Living in dusty areas
- Presence of pets
Symptoms of allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis symptoms may be present year-round or appear seasonally, depending on plant blooms or other factors.
- Difficulty in nasal breathing
- Mucus discharge from the nose
- Frequent sneezing
Often, conjunctivitis joins allergic rhinitis, and lacrimation and itching in the eyes are added to the runny nose. Also, the patient may be disturbed by itching of the pharynx and palate.
To confirm the diagnosis and clarify the severity of the disease, additional diagnostic methods are needed:
- ENT specialist consultation
- The study of allergy markers in the blood (immunoglobulin E, general and specific)
- Carrying out skin testing with the main groups of allergens
Prevention of the occurrence of allergic rhinitis is the avoidance of risk factors for its occurrence: wet cleaning of dusty rooms, installation of window filters or nets, if possible, leaving the region in which the allergenic plant blooms at the time of its flowering.
Treatment of allergic rhinitis
The best treatment for allergic rhinitis is the detection and elimination of the allergen. If it is not possible to eliminate the allergen, pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment can be used:
- local antihistamine and glucocorticoid drops, sprays
- oral antihistamines
- systemic desensitization.
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